S.A.D

How this Fast Diet Lifestyle works: Eat these meals tomorrow, for a calorie total of less than 600. On another day this week, eat the meals from a different post, another day of eating 600 calories or less. Eat sensibly the other days of the week. That’s it. Simple way to lose weight and be healthier.

How curious that the initials of what nutritionists call the ‘Standard American Diet‘ spell the word ‘SAD.’ That diet is blamed for many of the Western World’s health woes. It makes one sad to think about it. How did this start?? In the late 1800s, there was a health-food movement that saw the invention of processed breakfast cereal. By the early 1900s, growing urban populations needed food and they couldn’t afford to have it spoil. Enter the Kraft brothers. J.L. Kraft moved from Canada to Chicago in 1904, and sold cheese door to door in a cart. He lost lots of money since the unsold cheese became either moldy and too dry to sell. In 1906, brother Charles joined the company. They started trying to make a ‘processed cheese‘ in a tin which would have a longer shelf life. In 1916, they perfected it — just in time to sell thousands of tins to the US Army during WWI. Doughboys returned with a taste for the stuff and the company took off. By 1923, company sales equalled $22 million! Five years later, they added salad dressing and ‘oleomargarine.’ This was the start of the Kraft Food Company. Now allied with the Heinz Company, they make 200 items sold world-wide.

Charles Kraft was born on October 17. We will note that while eating foods that are purchased but are low in sugar, saturated fat, simple carbs — unlike the overly-processed foods that constitute the S.A.D. Today’s menu features meals with lots of protein, fresh fruits and vegetables, complex carbohydrates, and flavor.

10-Grain Cereal: 143 calories 0.8 g fat 4.3 g fiber 8 g protein 28 g carbs [22 g Complex]  NB: Food values given are for the plated foods only, and do not include the optional beverage. PB  This is one of our favorite breakfasts – even on a Slow Day! 

3 Tbsp uncooked Bob’s 10-Grain Cereal ¼ cup low-fat milk + 1/3 cup water  Toppings: 2 Tbsp blueberries, fresh or frozen + 2 Tbsp milk  Optional: blackish coffee [ 53 calories] or blackish tea or mocha cafe au lait [65 calories] Optional: 5 oz fruit smoothie or berry-yogurt smoothie [88 calories]

If preparing the night before: Cook the cereal with the water/milk for about 8 minutes on the stove. Pour into a microwave-safe bowl. Next morning: Heat the cereal in the microwave for about a minute, then top with berries and milk. If preparing in the morning: Cook the cereal with the water/milk for about 8 minutes on the stove. Pour into the bowl and top with berries and milk.  

Tortellini with Black Kale:  209 calories 9 g fat 3.5 g fiber 10 g protein 24 g carbs [7.4 g Complex] 231 mg Calcium PB Packaged, dried tortellini is a handy item to have in the pantry. It makes for a fine Tuscan meal [Mediterranean food!] when pared with Black Kale. The recipe is from ‘thekitchn‘  NB: I used the recipe below for the kale as two servings, when paired with the pasta. But the calories are so low that you could use it as one serving alongside the pasta. 

27 g dried cheese/spinach tortellini [Barilla brand is good] 3 oz diced tomato 2 Tbsp grated Parmesan cheese PLUS ingredients shown below for the kale.

For the Kale:

3 oz black kaleUse your hands to pull the kale leaves from their stems. Coarsely chop the leaves. Rinse them, but do not dry.
1 tsp olive oil
2 cloves garlic pinch red pepper flakes
Heat the oil in large, wide, high-sided sauté pan over medium heat until shimmering. Add the garlic and red pepper flakes and cook, stirring, until fragrant, about 1 minute (do not let the garlic brown).
¼ tsp kosher salt pinch ground pepperAdd the kale, stirring as it starts to wilt. Stir in the salt and pepper. Cover and cook, stirring occasionally, until the kale is just tender, about 5 minutes.
2 tsp Lemon juice Remove from the heat, stir in the lemon juice, and serve.

For the Meal: Cook the pasta in boiling salted water for 9-11 minutes, then drain. Combine with the diced tomatoes and Parmesan. Plate the pasta surrounded by the kale.

Ingredients for next week: Breakfast, single portion for Monday……. single portion for Thursday:

one Pan Muffin1 two-oz egg  + pear
cucumber + pear
turkey breast meat, raw or cooked
cooked chicken + radish
olive oil + celery + onion
optional deglet noor date
70-calorie whole-grain bread + herbs
Optional smoothieoptional smoothie
optional hot beverage optional hot beverage

Dinner, single portion for Monday: …….. single portion for Thursday:

cooked salmon + Dijon mustard
ground lamb
medium-sized cucumber
Gruyere cheese
4-Bean Salad + leek
brown rice
Watercress sauce
Mediterranean Vegetables
Sparkling waterSparkling water

Moon Shot

How this Fast Diet  Lifestyle works: Eat these meals tomorrow, for a calorie total of less than 600. On another day this week, eat the meals from a different post, another day of eating 600 calories or less. Eat sensibly the other days of the week. That’s it. Simple way to lose weight and be healthier. Welcome to InspiredLiving who is now Following.

We were in a bus, returning to Paris. ‘We’ were a mixed bunch of college students from the US on a student “tour with cultural experiences and language immersion.” It was a Sunday in late July, 1969. The organizers had herded us into a bus for a weekend trip to Normandy and Brittany which we had dutifully toured. Now it was dark and we had a couple more hours ahead of us on that bus. We had been singing, chatting, napping, and suddenly the bus driver turned on the radio. An excited French broadcaster was beginning to shout: “L’Aigle est atterri*! L’Aigle est atterri**!!” Those who knew more French translated for the neophytes: ‘The Eagle has landed!” And so we knew that the Apollo 11 lunar lander was safely on the moon. What a moment! As one, we began to sing The Star Spangled Banner. Writing about it now gives me goosebumps. The next day, every cafe in Paris had a TV out on the sidewalk, so everyone could share the adventure. That night, the Place de la Concord had screens on which the TV images from the moon were displayed. We, France, and the world were mesmerized by the event. Fifty years ago and I can still remember it in detail.

*The word ‘atterri’ [or ‘landed’] literally means ‘come to Earth.’ Soon a new word was coined: ‘aluni,’ meaning ‘land on the moon.’ ** I remember the word a “atteresse” [with a accent aigu on the last ‘e’; and the moon landing version as “alunisse” but maybe I that is a detail that I have mis-remembered…

Our meals today are in the image of the full moon, with a round of dairy at breakfast and a fish timbale at dinner. NB: The idea that the “moon is made of (green) cheese” comes from the detailed observations of an early astronomer. He was looking at the moon through his telescope and writing notes to himself. To describe the color of the pale orb, he gave a comparison: it was ‘the color of green [meaning young or un-aged] cheese.’ Some idiot took him literally.

Bombadil’s Breakfast: 146 calories 5.1 g fat 2.5 g fiber 10.5 g protein 15.3 g carbs [8.3 g Complex] 312 mg Calcium  NB: the food values given are for the plated items only, and do not include the optional beverages. PB GF Vegetarian When Tom Bombadil served his guests breakfast, it was plants, fruit and dairy of his own collection or production. The plants should be watercress [since his wife Goldberry was the River-Man’s daughter] and the fruit shall be Golden Berries [aka Peruvian Ground Cherries], again in a nod to his wife.

½ oz Camembert cheese ½ cup watercress leaves or microgreens ½ cup plain yogurt ½ tsp honey 1 oz Golden Berries edible flowers [violets, chives, nastursum, or others]  Optional: blackish coffee [53 calories] or blackish tea or lemon in hot water Optional: 5 oz fruit smoothie or berry-yogurt smoothie [88 calories]

Warm the honey and stir it into the yogurt. Plate the items to your taste and enjoy a magical breakfast in The Old Forest. Wear a blue jacket and yellow hat.

Fish Timbale:  276 calories 17.3 g fat 1.6 g fiber 23.5 g protein 8 g carbs 95 mg Calcium  PB GF Sounds high-falutin’ but really very easy.

1.6 oz mackerel or salmon + 1.3 oz haddock or cod 3/4 oz egg [either pullet egg or an egg white] 1/3 oz white beans 2 Tbsp cream + 2 Tbsp spinach + 1/2 Tbsp shallot 1 oz Swiss chard 1/8 tsp olive oil nutmeg + granulated garlic

Wash the spinach and leave water on the leaves. Put in a lidded pan along with the chopped shallot. Put on the lid and let cook until the spinach is limp. Remove, chop, and squeeze the water out of the spinach. Thoroughly mash the white beans and add the cream. Stir the spinach/shallot into the bean/cream. If fish is raw: Put in a pan with a little water. Cover and steam until fish is cooked. Flake the fish and combine with the other ingredients, except the chard. Turn into an oil-spritzed ramekin and bake at 400 degrees F. for 10-15 minutes. Meanwhile, coarsley chop the chard and cook it in a little water until done. Drain and season with nutmeg and granulated garlic. Run a knife around the sides of the timbale and invert the plate over it. Turn the plate right-side-up and remove the timbale. Plate the chard.

Jean Baptiste

How this Fast Diet  Lifestyle works: Eat these meals tomorrow, for a calorie total of less than 600. On another day this week, eat the meals from a different post, another day of eating 600 calories or less. Eat sensibly the other days of the week. That’s it. Simple way to lose weight and be healthier.

The Festival of Jean Baptiste is the main holiday of the Francophone people of Canada. To the rest of the world, he is John the Baptist, cousin of Jesus, who was beheaded by the orders of Herod Antipas. The Quebecquois and the Maritimers of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island Canada have adopted him as their patron saint and celebrate his day on June 24. To them, it is an assertion of their cultural identity and it is a major celebration. The custom began in Montreal, Canada in 1834, at the urging of the Jean-Baptiste Society who organized a parade. They were inspired by the Saint Patrick’s Day parade a few years earlier. Parades, dinners, folk music, dancing, and having a great time turned into an official holiday in 1977. If you like a good time, head to Quebec Province or the Acadian Peninsula of New Brunswick for June 24.

In honor of the Francophone people of Canada, breakfast features eggs in a very Gallic buckwheat galette. And dinner is in honor of Saint John himself. He is described as eating a simple, meatless diet [unless you count locusts as meat], so a dinner of felafel will be just the thing.

Egg-Mushroom Galette/Crepe: 153 calories 6 g fat 2.1 g fiber 9.3 g protein 16.8 g carbs [11.3 g Complex] 39 mg Calcium  NB: The food values given above are for the egg crepe and fruit only, not the optional beverages. PB  Vegetarian This is yummy. The eggs are creamy, the mushrooms are earthy, and the galette is nutty. 

1 galette/savory crepe, see Sidekicks II 4 Oct-’18 for recipe one 2-oz egg 1 oz mushrooms, chopped 1 Tbsp chives, chopped 1 tsp thyme + generous dash of granulated garlic 1 oz raspberries Optional:blackish coffee [53 calories] or blackish tea or lemon in hot water Optional:5-6 oz fruit smoothie or berry-yogurt smoothie [88 calories]

Warm the crepe. Spritz the non-stick saute pan with oil/non-stick spray and gently cook the mushrooms. Put the chives, thyme, garlic, salt, and pepper in with the egg and beat it up. Scramble lightly with the mushrooms, keeping the eggs moist. Turn out on the crepe and fold it over the egg. Plate the fruit. Sip your beverages and have an amazing day.

Felafel with Mixed Salad 295 calories 13.6 g fat 7.3 g fiber 15.5 g protein 29 g carbs [28 Complex] 174 mg Calcium  PB GF Vegetarian  What a healthy plate of food! When you have felafel in the freezer, a quick meal like becomes almost instant.

6 felafel patties [see recipe from I-13-’19] 2 cups lettuce [I like to slice large leaves cross-wise into 1/2” strips] 2 oz tomatoes, cherry tomatoes or larger ones cut in 1/2” cubes 1 oz carrots, grated 1 oz beets cut in large dice 1 oz Feta cheese in large crumbles ¾ tsp flavored olive oil + ¾ tsp white wine vinegar salt + pepper to taste

Thaw or prepare the felafel patties. If unbaked, heat in a 400 F. oven for 10-15 minutes. Prepare the vegetables for the salad. Whisk the vinegar and oil, then toss the salad vegetables in the dressing. Top with the felafel and feta crumbles.

No Fooling!

How this Fast Diet  Lifestyle works: Eat these meals tomorrow, for a calorie total of less than 600. On another day this week, eat the meals from a different post, another day of eating 600 calories or less. Eat sensibly the other days of the week. That’s it. Simple way to lose weight and be healthier.                                                                                                                       Welcome to claridad who is now Following.

Tomorrow will be April 1st — April Fools’ Day.  What is the origin of that expression?  Why is that day a time for playing tricks?  The most widely-held origin story relates to the switch [anytime from the 1500s to the 1900s] from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar.  There was a 14-day gap [akin to the clocks ‘springing forward’ to Daylight Savings Time] and what had been the start of the new year on March 25 was now on April 1. Confusing to anyone to be sure, but those who got it wrong were labeled ‘fools.’  In France, the butt of a prank is called a ‘poisson d’Avril’ [April fish], since the young fish are foolish enough to be caught more easily.[??]  A popular joke is to tape a picture of a fish to someone’s back.  [At least it doesn’t say ‘kick me.’]   What is your favorite prank for April 1?                                                                                                                        We will not be fooled — we will know that April 1, 2019 will be a Fast Day and we will be ready for it.  Neither will we be fooled by other diets which promise great results and can’t deliver.  Today’s menus include fish so that you can eat the Poisson d’Avril rather than being one.  Interested in the Mediterranean Diet? I’m not kidding: these meals are for you.

Brandade Bake:  145 calories  8.3 g fat  1.2 g fiber  11.2 g protein  4.3 g carbs  [2.8 g Complex] 44.8 mg Calcium  NB: The food values shown are for the egg bake and the fruit, not for the optional beverages.   PB GF  The food of Southern France, brandade is worth trying. Here it is at breakfast, all creamy and garlicy.Brandade Bake w: peach:b-b

1 two-oz egg                                                                                                                                               ½ Tbsp cottage cheese                                                                                                                                 1 Tbsp brandade [see St Bernard, posted 19 August 2018]                                                                shake or more of granulated garlic                                                                                                      1 oz peach slices + ½ oz blueberries                                                                                           Optional: blackish coffee [53 calories] or blackish tea or lemon in hot water                            Optional:  5-6 oz fruit smoothie or berry-yogurt smoothie  [88 calories]

Cream together the cottage cheese, brandade, and garlic. Whisk in the egg. Bake in a lightly-spritzed oven-proof dish or ramekin at 350° F. until cooked through, about 12-15 minutes. With the fruit and beverages, you have a fine start to the day.

Fish with Polenta & Zucchini Ribbons:  261 calories   5.6 g fat  3.9 g fiber   32 g protein 23 g carbs [Complex]   225 mg Calcium  PB  The polenta needs to be made ahead. Simple to prepare and delicious and filling [even though I forgot to add the cheeses!].Fish w: Polenta & Zucchini Ribbons

1 slice of polenta [that’s 1/6 of the recipe from SIDEKICKS II Oct 4, ’17]                                                  3 oz zucchini ribbons                                                                                                                                       1 oz roasted red peppers                                                                                                                   1 clove garlic                                                                                                                                     2 Tbsp crushed tomatoes                                                                                                                                      4 oz firm fish filets, skinless and boneless                                                                                       large pinch herbes de Province or thyme                                                                                            1 Tbsp Parmesan, grated                                                                                                                        ½ oz mozzerella, grated

Slice the garlic as a julienne. Using a potato peeler, make lengthwise cuts on the zucchini to produce thin ‘ribbons.’  Alternately, use a spiralizer.  Cut the slice of polenta in half so it is about 1/3” thick. Heat a heavy skillet and spray with a non-stick product. Lay the fish on the skillet and sprinkle with pepper and and salt. Cook on one side, then flip to the other. Add the polenta to the pan at this point. Cook it in the hot pan on both sides until it is warm and beginning to brown. Remove cooked fish and polenta and keep warm. Put the garlic in the pan and stir for about 30 seconds. Add the other vegetables, herbs, salt, pepper, and Parmesan. Stir to combine until everything is warm, about 45 seconds – the zucchini will be just barely cooked. Plate the fish and polenta slices, spoon the vegetables around the polenta, then sprinkle with mozzerella.

Shipwrecked!

How this Fast Diet Lifestyle works: Eat these meals tomorrow, for a calorie total of less than 600. On another day this week, eat the meals from a different post, another day of eating 600 calories or less. Eat sensibly the other days of the week. That’s it. Simple way to lose weight and be healthier.                                                                           Welcome to laurarose who is now Following.

Tomorrow, February 10, is “San Pawl Nawfragu.” But you knew that, right?  You would have known if you were familiar with Chapters 27-28 of the Book of Acts.  There, Luke, the author of Acts, describes being transported from modern-day Crete to Rome with St Paul who was a prisoner. [Paul, in 60 CE, was accused of crimes against the state, but being a citizen of Rome, he demanded that the trial be held in Rome. Hence the sea voyage.]  The ship was in a storm off southern Italy and the crew were fearful for their lives.  Paul told them they would all live and when the ship ran aground, everyone survived. Once safely on shore,” wrote Luke, “we found out that the island was called Malta.  The islanders showed us unusual kindness. They built a fire and welcomed us all because it was raining and cold.”  The shipwreck at Valletta or possibly St Thomas Bay was the start of the conversion the Maltese to Christianity. After three months, the crew and passengers continued to Rome and to this day, the people of Malta celebrate the shipwreck and the rescue of all hands.                                                                                                         “Mediterranean Vegetables” [similar to French Ratatouille] are a popular ingredient in Maltese recipes [a recipe will call for ‘a can of Mediterranean Vegetables’], and so we use them in today’s meals.  From breakfast to dinner, we can dine like those unusually kind people of Malta. The dinner is a scaled-down version of the local favorite “Torta tal-Ispinaċi u t-Tonn taż-Żejt.”

ratatouille-egg crepe

Ratatouille-Egg Crepe:    292 calories   5.7 g fat   4 g fiber   15.5 g protein   43 g carbs [37 g Complex]   205 mg Calcium    PB  GF – if using GF flour in your crêpes     Straight out of Malta – if it weren’t for the crêpe! A perfect blend of French/Mediterranean flavors.

1 crêpe [see Sidekicks I, 17 Sept 2017]                                                                                                            one 2-oz egg                                                                                                                                                               ¼ cup Mediterranean Vegetables [Sidekicks II, 4 Oct 2017], drained of excess liquids [reserve the liquid]                                                                                                                                                   ½ oz fresh mushrooms                                                                                                                                           5-6 oz green smoothie or fruit smoothie or unpasturized apple cider                                            blackish coffee or blackish tea or lemon in hot water

Drain the vegetables of excess liquids. Use the liquids to cook the mushrooms. Combine the vegetables and mushrooms and heat. Warm the crêpe and plate it. Poach or fry the egg. Spoon the vegetables over the crêpe and top it all with the egg.

maltese spinach-tuna pie

Maltese Spinach-Tuna Pie:   185 calories   9.6 g fat  5.3 g fiber  19 g protein   24 g carbs [16 g Complex]   49 mg Calcium   PB   This dish is a classic in Malta and you will enjoy it at home too. Lots of ingredients, but it is really easy to prepare and remarkably tasty. NB: This recipe serves two.

1/6 sheet purchased puff pastry                                                                                                       100 g frozen spinach                                                                                                                                 1 tsp olive oil                                                                                                                                    ½ cup onion, chopped                                                                                                                           2 cloves garlic, chopped                                                                                                                     100 g tuna                                                                                                                                           100 g Mediterranean Vegetables [see Sidekicks II,  4-October -’17]                                                                                 ¼ c peas                                                                                                                                            1 Tbsp capers                                                                                                                                     2 anchovies, rinsed                                                                                                                              2 Tbsp tomato puree 

Put the puff paste sheet on the counter to warm for 30 minutes. Thaw the spinach and squeeze out the moisture. Heat the oil in a pan, then saute the onions and garlic. When they are just cooked, add everything else except the puff pastry. Stir and cook until everything is warmed through. Transfer to a lightly-oiled oven-proof dish. Cut 1/6 of the pastry sheet. Rewrap and refreeze the rest. Place the puff paste on top of the tuna/vegetable mixture. Bake at 350 F for 20 minutes or until the puff pastry is browning and flakey.

Morning to Night: Felafel

How this Fast Diet Lifestyle works: Eat these meals tomorrow. On Thursday, eat the meals that will be posted on Wednesday.  Eat sensibly the other days of the week.  That’s it.  Simple way to lose weight and be healthier.                                                                           Welcome to Trinity L. who is now Following.

Felafel is a ubiquitous street food in the Eastern Mediterranean and it should be healthy. But too often it is deep-fried, adding needless calories and fat. On a Fast Day good felafel can take you from morning to night with some delicious and satisfying meals. The origin of felafel goes back to the lands now called Palestine and Israel, but once called Sameria, Judea, Idumaea.  Let’s not get bogged down on who invented it — let’s celebrate how good it is and how easy it is to eat in a variety of forms. Felafel in eggs and a felafel-topped salad are fine forms of feasting. I’ll give you the basic recipe, then you can decide how to use it.

Felafel:       1 batch = 648 cal 25.4 g fat 21 g fiber 32.5 g protein 72 g carbs 214 mg Calcium  each patty= 30 cal 1.2 g fat 0.8 g fiber 1.6 g protein 4 g carbs 8.5 mg Calcium    GF PB  V  From the good old Moosewood Cookbook by Molly Katzen, these are easy to prepare and set you up for several servings of future meals.                                                                                                                                  2 cups canned chick peas     [I like Goya brand  TIP:  if you use dried chickpeas, you will get a grainer product. Factor in the time to reconstitute and cook them]                                                            1.5 cloves garlic, crushed [add as much as you enjoy!]                                                                                 ¼ cup celery, minced                                                                                                                                           ¼ c. scallions, sliced                                                                                                                                                    1 raw egg                                                                                                                                                                                            1.5 tsp tahini                                                                                                                                                                 ½ t. cumin    +   ½ t. tumeric   +   ¼ t. cayenne  + ¼ t. black pepper     +  1.5 t. salt                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Combine everything in food processor until ingredients form a uniform paste. Scoop into a bowl and chill 1 hour. Form into balls on a silicone mat or parchment paper on a cookie sheet. I used a 1  Tbsp scoop and then flattened the patties slightly. TIP: You don’t have to bake them now. You could freeze the patties on a cookie sheet, then put them frozen into bags to cook later.  Bake at 400 degrees for 10-12 minutes. The patties should be heated through and have an outside ‘crust’ which is firm to the touch. In most recipes, you will cook them further. At this point you want them to be firm enough to store well. There will be about 25 of them. Use now or cool and freeze for later use.

Felafel Bake:  271 calories   6.6 g fat   3.1 g fiber   15.2 g protein  40 g carbs   198 mg Calcium   PB GF   Here we use 1 of the felafel patties which we prepared and froze earlier. Great time-saver! Amazing in eggs!Felafel Bake w: blueberries

1 two-oz egg one felafel patty, thawed [see Stocking Up I-4-’18]                                                                            1 Tbsp tomato puree or crushed tomatoes                                                                                                            ¼ c blueberries                                                                                                                                                                     blackish coffee, blackish tea, or lemon in hot water                                                                                   5-6 oz smoothie or natural apple cider

Spritz a ramekin with non-stick spray and set the toaster oven to 350 degrees F. Whisk together the felafel and the tomato until well blended. Whisk the egg into the felafel and turn into the ramekin. Bake about 15 minutes while you portion the berries and prepare the beverages. What a simple, delicious breakfast.

Felafel with Mixed Salad: 295 calories   13.6 g fat   7.3 g fiber   15.5 g protein  29 g carbs [28 Complex]   174 mg Calcium   PB   GF   V    What a healthy plate of food! When you have felafel in the freezer, a quick meal like this is almost instant. If you prep the vegetables in advance, this would be a good ‘make-ahead’ meal for the end of a busy day.felafel w: mixed salad

6 felafel patties                                                                                                                                                           2 cups lettuce, I like to slice large leaves cross-wise into 1/2” strips                                                         2 oz tomatoes, cherry tomatoes or cut in 1/2” cubes                                                                                      1 oz carrots, grated                                                                                                                                                       1 oz beets cut in large dice [canned beets would be a real plus]                                                                1 oz Feta cheese in large crumbles                                                                                                                    ¾ tsp flavored olive oil   +  ¾ tsp white wine vinegar                                                                                    salt + pepper to taste

Thaw the felafel patties. If unbaked, heat in a 400° F. oven for 10-15 minutes. Prepare the vegetables for the salad. Whisk the vinegar and oil, then toss the salad vegetables in the dressing. Top with the felafel and feta crumbles.